In a perfect world for photography, every photograph we take would have perfect light, the perfect subject, perfect exposure, resulting in the perfect photograph. However, as you know there is nothing perfect in our world including the conditions, in which we photograph. Fortunately, there are tools available that allow us to capture pictures that may appear close to perfect and flash is one of them. The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
Lesson 1: Understanding Flash´s archives ↓
Today’s flash units use E-TTL, which stands for ‘Evaluative through the lens’. Canon refers to it as ETTL, while Nikon uses iTTL (intelligent TTL) or to simplify: just TTL. The pre-flash only fires when you have depressed the shutter enough to start taking the actual picture. Most importantly, it only measures flash output, and does not fire when the camera is also metering the ambient light. The pre-flash usually evaluates the exposure through the lens just like the camera metering ambient light. This system makes it harder to fool the camera into an incorrect measurement of light. The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
Shutter speed only controls ambient exposure! The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
Here is an exercise for you to try:
Go outside after the sun has set and with your flash on camera, set the camera to Manual shooting mode and set your shutter speed to 1/60th, the f/stop to f/8 and the flash on TTL. Set ISO to 100 or 200 if 100 is not an option. Compose a scene so you see sky where the sun set and your backyard or similar. Focus on a subject like a person or object and then turn off auto focus on your lens so the camera is not looking for something to focus on in the low light. Now take the picture. Next adjust your shutter speed to whatever the in-camera meter suggests for proper ambient exposure and it might be something like 1 second at the f8 aperture. Take a second picture. Comparing the two photos, there should be no difference between the two as far as the flash exposure is concerned but the ambient light should be dark in the first picture while the second exposure, set to the cameras meter reading for ambient light, should have detail or proper exposure similar to the two pictures above.The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
This is what the wrong sync speed can look like. The flash fired when the shutter was not completely open. The flash output builds, fires, and falls off quickly. If your shutter is just about to open or close, the entire picture will not be evenly lit. The result is often a dark border.
Cameras meter flash and ambient light independently of each other. Your camera probably comes with several different shooting modes. On Canons: P for Program, Av for Aperture Priority, Tv for Shutter Priority and M for Manual. On Nikons: S is for Shutter Priority, A for Aperture Priority, P for Program, and M for Manual. From here on I will just refer to these modes as A=Aperture Priority, S=Shutter Priority, M = Manual, P = Program mode. The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
To override this, you need to select the SLOW SYNC MODE, and then the camera will select a shutter speed for a properly exposed background. To set the Nikon to SLOW SYNC MODE, go to the mode dial on top of the camera and select the flash ‘lightning bolt’. Using the Main Command Dial, rotate it until you have selected the slow sync mode icon. In addition, the Nikon D70 does not have a slow sync feature, and requires that camera use the rear curtain sync instead. Even though you will not get the exact same results, they will be similar.The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.
Times are changing faster than I can update this course (or it just feels like it) and here are a few new things to consider. I stated that P mode has a limit on shutter speed with a range between 1/60 – 1/250th. Now that has changed with some cameras offering the ability to control that shutter speed range to be longer than 1/60th when using P mode. The content you are trying to access is only available to members. Sorry.